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in Dinah Sehlton (ed), Encyclopedia of Genocide, Macmillan 2004, Vol. I, p. 289.

Enver, Ismail

[ November 22, ( 1881 –August 4, 1922 ] )

Turkish Minister of War in the Ottoman Empire during World War I , better known as Enver Pasha , , was the Minister of War of th e Ottoman Empire during the First World War and bears considerable responsibility for the governmental policy of systematically eliminating the non-Turkish peoples in the Ottoman empire, including the Armenians, the Greeks and the Assyrian Christians, most of whom were killed, deported or forced to flee during the world war and its aftermath, their property and assets being subjected to confiscation by the State.

Ismail Enver was born on 22 November 22, 1881 into a well-to-do civil-servant family in Istanbul. His father was a civil servant. He Enver studied in Germany, where he was particularly influenced by German military theory and organization, which he tried to emulate upon his return to the Ottoman Empire. He was quickly promoted in the army, attaining the title of Pasha (Bashaw) in 1913, when he was but 32 years old. He married Naciye Sultana, the Sultan's daughter. He was one of the leaders of the Committee for Union and Progress, also known as Ittihadists or Young Turks, together with Talaat Pasha and Cemal Pasha. He was a vocal supporter of a pan-Turkish Empire extending deep into the Caucasus, Iran, India, and Central Asia.

A bloodless revolution in July 1908 deposed Sultan Abdul Hamit and led the Ittihadists to power. At their 1910 congress in Saloniki, the Ittihadists discussed a plan for the “complete Ottomanization of all Turkish subjects . ” Their aggressive nationalist policies contributed to the outbreak of the Balkan war of 1912, where ethnic cleansing was practised on all sides. In 1912 , the loss of Libya to Italy eroded the Ittihadists power and drove them into a coalition with the Liberal Union. However, on 23 January 23, 1913 the Three Pashas putsched and established a military dictatorhip . This , which eventually drew the Ottoman Empire into the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.

Enver's Third Army suffered a The disastrous defeat of Enver's Third Army at Sarikamish during the December 1914 offensive against Russia , ( in which some 80,000 Turkish soldiers perished . ) This diminished Enver's prestige , . B b ut , without justification, he blamed the Armenians for his defeat, unjustly accusing them of connivance with the Russians . and, t T ogether with Talaat Pasha, the n serving as Minister of the Interior, he conceived the plan to physically eliminate all Christian minorities, including the Armenians, Assyrians and orthodox Greeks, which that, theoretically , might could have sympathies with the enemy. The genocide against the Armenians was begun on 24 April 24, 1915 , with through the arrest and murder of Armenian leaders and intell ectuals igentsia in Istanbul. The Armenian civilian population in Eastern Anatolia was then subjected to massacres and deportations that cost 1 to 1.5 million lives. Within the Ministry of War, Enver gave responsibility to a Special Organization ( Teshkilati Mahsusa ) ; one of whose its assignment was the liquidation of the Armenians.

Pursuant to a A rticle 230 of the Treaty of Sèvres between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire, Turkish officers and politicians responsible for the genocide of non-Turkish populations were to be tried by an international tribunal. Already o O n 23 November 23, 1918 , an Ottoman Parliamentary Commission started an inquiry into the massacres, which led to the indictment of Enver, Talaat , and former Minister of Justice Ibrahim Bey. They were tried in absentia before a Turkish court martial in Istanbul, found guilty pursuant to a A rticles 45 and 170 of the Ottoman Penal Code, and sentenced to death. The sentences were not carried out , however, because since, shortly before capitulation, the Young Turk cabinet had resigned and gone into exile shortly before capitulation .

Enver fled to Germany in October 1918 , and established contacts with German communists , including Karl Radek. In 1920 he went to Moscow , and eventually he travelled to Asia, where he supported an anti-Bolshevik revolt. He was killed in battle on 4 August 4, 1922 , near Baldzhuan in Turkestan (present-day Tajikistan).

Ahmad, F. (1969). The Young Turks . , Oxford : Oxford University Press .

<BB>Cemal, Pasha (1977) Hatiralar (Memoirs), Cagdas, Istanbul.</BB>

Morgenthau, Henry (2000). Ambassador Morgenthau's Story . , Gomidas Institute, Ann Arbor, Mich .: igan, Gomidas Institute. Taderon Press, Reading, U.K.

Dadrian, Dadrian (1989). “Genocide as a Problem of National and International l aw” , Yale Journal of International Law , 221-334.</BB>

Dadrian, Vahakn (1999). Warra n m t for Genocide. Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict . New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. New Brunswick and London.

Dadrian, Dadrian (1989). “Genocide as a Problem of National and International law”, Yale Journal of International Law , 221-334.</BB>

Shaw, S.J. , and Shaw E.K. (1977). History of the Ottomoan Empire and Modern Turkey . , Cambridge, U.K.: Cambidge University Press , Cambridge and New York .

Vardy, Steven , and Hunt Tooley, Hunt ( eds. ) (2003). Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth Century Europe . New York: Columbia University Press , New York .

© Alfred de Zayas

Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales, Geneva

Academie internationale de Droit Constitutionnel, Tunis

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